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According to the Bible, Noah took samples of all animals alive at the time of the Flood. For thousands of plant species (perhaps even most plants), there is at least one animal that eats only that one kind of plant. Aside from losing its atmosphere, Earth can only get rid of heat by radiating it to space, and it can't radiate significantly more heat than it gets from the sun unless it is a great deal hotter than it is now.
If, as creationists claim, all fossil-bearing strata were deposited by the Flood, then all the animals which became fossils were alive then. How did Noah gather all those plants aboard, and where did he put them? (It is very nearly at thermal equilibrium now.) If there weren't many millions of years to radiate the heat from the above processes, the earth would still be unlivably hot.
(Minor arithmetic errors in totals are corrected.) Woodmorappe treats many animals as juveniles; "yearling" masses are masses of those animals after one year of growth. Most flood models (including those above, possibly excepting Hovind's) deal with the water after the flood by proposing that it became our present oceans. Proceedings of the third international conference on creationism, technical symposium sessions, pp. In an oxygen-rich regime, they would almost certainly be impossible. Mineralization is the replacement of the original material with a different mineral.
"Total mass after one year" is the maximum load which Woodmorappe allows for. The earth's terrain, according to this model, was much, much flatter during the Flood, and through cataclysms, the mountains were pushed up and the ocean basins lowered. How are these observations explained by a sorted deposition of remains in a single episode of global flooding?
Organisms have preferred environments outside of which they are at a deadly disadvantage. If only 15764 animals were aboard the Ark (see section 3), one animal must have been loaded every 38 seconds, without letup. The sediments are so fine that each layer would have required over a month to settle. Stratigraphic sections showing a dozen or more mature forests layered atop each other--all with upright trunks, in-place roots, and well-developed soil--appear in many locations.
However, even Jewish sources admit that this contradicts the unambiguous word of the Bible. 187] The number and size of clean birds is small enough to disregard entirely, but the Bible at one point (Gen. Woodmorappe performed such an analysis and came to the conclusion that the animals would take up 47% of the ark. How did such a small crew dispose of so much waste? The animals aboard the ark would have been in very poor shape unless they got regular exercise. Again, this has the problem of the heat from the gravitational potential energy. A year long flood should be recognizable in sea bottom cores by (1) an uncharacteristic amount of terrestrial detritus, (2) different grain size distributions in the sediment, (3) a shift in oxygen isotope ratios (rain has a different isotopic composition from seawater), (4) a massive extinction, and (n) other characters. Why is there no evidence of a flood in tree ring dating? This apparently occurs when a body of salt water has its fresh-water intake cut off, and then evaporates. It defines clean animals essentially as ruminants, a suborder which includes about 69 recent genera, 192 recent species [Wilson & Reeder, 1993], and probably a comparable number of extinct genera and species. However, the ark was divided into separate rooms and decks (Gen. How was fresh air circulated throughout the structure? The ungulates alone would have produced tons of manure a day. Several people have proposed answers to these questions, but none which consider all the implications of their models. Why is there no evidence of a flood in ice core series? [Poldervaart, 1955] A deposition rate ten times as high for 5000 years before the Flood would still only account for less than 0.02% of limestone deposits. Chalk is largely made up of the bodies of plankton 700 to 1000 angstroms in diameter [Bignot, 1985]. "Creationism: Please Don't Call It Science" Creation/Evolution, 13:1 (Summer 1993), 45-49. Geology of the Himalayas, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., New York. A., 1990, Early Pennsylvanian swamp forests in the Mary Lee coal zone, Warrior Basin, Alabama. That is a small percentage of the total number of species, but ruminants are among the largest mammals, so their bulk is significant. 8-9) gets around the problem by citing Jewish tradition which gives only 13 domestic genera as clean. Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co., Philadelphia PA. The waste on the lowest deck at least (and possibly the middle deck) could not simply be pushed overboard, since the deck was below the water line; the waste would have to be carried up a deck or two. A few of the commonly cited models are addressed below. This model, proposed by Whitcomb & Morris and others, proposes that much of the Flood water was suspended overhead until the 40 days of rain which caused the Flood. Ice cores from Greenland have been dated back more than 40,000 years by counting annual layers. Such a mass of water as the Flood would have provided sufficient buoyancy to float the polar caps off their beds and break them up. In fact, the Greenland ice cap would not regrow under modern (last 10 ky) climatic conditions. Objects this small settle at a rate of .0000154 mm/sec. The creationists who propose all the species living together in a uniform climate are effectively proposing the destruction of all environments but one. To determine how much space is required for animals, we must first determine what is a kind, how many kinds were aboard the ark, and how big they were. Creationists themselves can't decide on an answer to this question; they propose criteria ranging from species to order, and I have even seen an entire kingdom (bacteria) suggested as a single kind. Woodmorappe and Whitcomb & Morris arbitrarily exclude all animals except mammals, birds, and reptiles. Many animals, especially insects, require special diets. Some of these events release significant amounts of heat. Since steam and air have a lower heat capacity than water, the steam released will quickly raise the temperature of the atmosphere over 1000 C. Most extinctions are caused by destroying the organisms' preferred environments. Getting all the animals aboard the Ark presents logistical problems which, while not impossible, are highly impractical. Since there were likely more animals to load, the time pressures would have been even worse. However, on the ark "kind" must have meant something closer to species for three reasons: What kinds were aboard the ark? One example, the Joggins section along the Bay of Fundy, shows a continuous section 2750 meters thick (along a 48-km sea cliff) with multiple in-place forests, some separated by hundreds of feet of strata, some even showing evidence of forest fires. For other examples, see Dawson, 1868; Cristie & Mc Millan, 1991; Gastaldo, 1990; Yuretich, 1994.] Creationists point to logs sinking in a lake below Mt. Helens as an example of how a flood can deposit vertical trunks, but deposition by flood fails to explain the roots, the soil, the layering, and other features found in such places. If the geologic record was deposited in a year, then the events it records must also have occurred within a year.